F2B JUDGING INSTRUCTIONS

Version 2

Approved at the 2000 CIAM Plenary Meeting

To be circulated to all members and aeroclubs. Will be utilized as a working document at the 2000 World Championships.

Converted to HTML by Göran Olsson

The original available as a zipped Word document from the FAI Web site


FAI SPORTING CODE, SECTION 4c, PART FOUR, ANNEX 4A

TECHNICAL RULES FOR CONTROL LINE AEROBATIC MODELS

4A.1   Purpose

This Judges Instructions document is an aid to judging and marking FAI Class F2B Aerobatics competitions. It should be used both for the training of potential judges, and for maintaining the proficiency of judges who are already practising. This document forms part of Section 4 of the FAI Sporting Code applicable to Class F2B Aerobatics.

4A.2   Judges' qualifications and the selection of Judges' Panels for international competitions

The National Aero Club/Airsports Council (NAC) of each country having F2B judges who join (or who wish to join) Judges' Panels at international F2B competitions should ensure that a defined standard of judging proficiency is reached and maintained by each of the judges for which it has responsibility. Each such NAC should therefore:

4A.2.1   provide translations into their own language of both the current FAI F2B Sporting Code and of this complete Judging Instructions document;

4A.2.2   arrange suitable means and procedures to guarantee that each judge is fully trained, and that such standard is maintained. This should include arranging regular and repeated group training in both theoretical (classroom) and practical (flight) venues where every aspect of both the current Sporting Code and of this document may be examined and practised in detail;

4A.2.3   provide suitable means for officially recording each such training session attended by every judge within its national responsibility. Such official record should include dates, duration, and number of flights observed at such training sessions, and should also separately list details of all the international F2B competitions at which each judge has been a member of the Judges Panel;

4A.2.4   establish selection criteria which clearly defines the minimum periods of undergoing such training, and of actually judging high quality F2B flights at national level, before judges are eligible to be nominated or invited to join Judges' Panels at international F2B competitions.

Provision of all the above will ensure that the judging of all international F2B contests is carried out to the same basic standard, and will also enable the organisers of international competitions to ascertain that all judges invited or nominated to a Judges Panel do indeed meet the required standards of qualifications and experience. The organisers of all World- and Continental Championships should therefore submit a list of proposed judges' names, together with their NAC qualification details (4A.2.3), to their own NAC and to the Control Line Subcommittee of the FAI not later than the month of January in the year that the competition will be held.

To ensure a continuous pool of suitably qualified international F2B judges, it is recommended that, with suitable modifications, each NAC apply the criteria and procedures at 4A.2.1 through 4A.2.4 above to the selection and training of F2B judges for competitions at national level.

4A.3   Sporting Code and Manoeuvre Rules Knowledge

The primary requirements for fair, accurate, and consistent judging are:

4A.3.1   a clear understanding of all of the applicable regulations and definitions within the complete FAI Sporting Code;

4A.3.2   an in-depth and fully detailed knowledge of all of the current F2B manoeuvre Rules;

4A.3.3   a fully detailed knowledge of this complete Judging Instructions document.

Self-study of all of the above points is a must, as is regular detailed group training at both classroom and flight venues in the practical application of all of the above points to the judging of high quality F2B competition flights.

It is stressed that individual "interpretation" of the intent and/or meaning of the FAI Sporting Code is strongly discouraged - the purpose of these Judging Instructions is to eliminate any need for such "interpretation" by individuals.

4A.4   Terminology

4A.4.1   In all of the following manoeuvre marking instructions, the descriptions have been written from the viewing point of the pilot and not of the judges; and all the following descriptions use "two dimensional" terms on the basis that whilst it is known that models actually fly hemispherical arcs, the real judging task is to mark manoeuvres such as Square Loops (for example) on the basis of what can be most easily and clearly described in writing as "straight line" flight paths. Rather than using terms which are geometrically accurate but which may create confusion, all the manoeuvre descriptions in this document therefore use terms which express the meaning of the Sporting Code and explain the judges' marking tasks as clearly and as simply as possible.

4A.4.2   The following "everyday English" terms appear but are used throughout this document in a specific way:

Term:

Definition:

- manoeuvre -

- means the full total of figures and segments necessary to complete the marked "flying exercise" listed in the Sporting Code under a single Rule number - examples: the Take-off (Rule 4.2.16. 2); the Three Consecutive Inside Loops (Rule 4.2.16.4); and the One Four Leaf Clover (Rule 4.2.16.15). These are all referred to in this document as a single manoeuvre. Note that each manoeuvre listed in the Sporting Code has a Rule number. In this document the relevant Rule number is shown in italic (cursive) script in the heading at the start of each of the manoeuvre description paragraphs.

- figure -

- means a shape which makes up a separate, recognisable whole portion of a complete manoeuvre. For example, the first loop of the Three Consecutive Inside Loops (Rule 4.2.16.4) is referred to as a figure in this document; but the first loop which makes the first half of the first complete figure eight in the Two Overhead Figure Eights (Rule 4.2.16.14) is not referred to as a figure in this document.

- segment -

- means a specifically defined part of a figure (or a manoeuvre) during which the judge is required to observe certain particular detail points. For example, the Two Consecutive Inside Square Loops manoeuvre (Rule 4.2.16.4.) This document has divided that manoeuvre into two separate figures (the first and second loops), and the first loop has also been sub-divided into four separate segments for judges to observe specific detail points.

- upright -

- means that the model is flying in its "normal" attitude (that is: with it's main landing gear wheels nearest to the ground);

- inverted -

- means that the model is in an attitude reversed from upright flight (colloquially: the model is "flying on it's back", or is "flying upside-down");

- "vertical" -

- means at right angles (perpendicular) to the ground over which the flying takes place. This word is marked with inverted commas (quotation marks) throughout this document as a constant reminder to judges that the requirement of the Sporting Code is for models to fly at right angles to the ground, even if that ground is not level and/or has a perceptible slope.

- "horizontal" -

- means parallel to the ground over which the flying takes place. This word is marked with inverted commas (quotation marks) throughout this document as a constant reminder to judges that the requirement of the Sporting Code is for models to fly parallel to the ground, even if that ground is not level and/or has a perceptible slope.

- "straight line" -

- means the closest distance between two points when shown in two dimensions. These words are marked with inverted commas (quotation marks) throughout this document as a constant reminder to judges that the judging requirement in all the Square and Triangular manoeuvres (for example) is to observe a number of turns ("corners") which should be joined by flight paths which appear to be straight lines when the judges are positioned correctly and when the competitor positions the model as required in the relevant manoeuvre Rules.

- momentarily } -
  or
  momentary } -

- used throughout this document in their original dictionary definition sense - that is: something which lasts only for a very brief period of time. So (for example) the very short period during which the model is required to be in a vertically-banked "knife-edge" attitude above the competitor's head during the Two Overhead Figure Eights manoeuvre (Rule 4.2.16.4) is described in this text as "momentarily".

- lateral reference -

- means an imaginary line drawn upwards from the ground at right angles. The judges should use this as the reference point when observing the size, positioning, symmetry, and superimposing of figures and manoeuvres being judged. As required by individual manoeuvre Rules, the text may refer to a lateral reference, to a lateral reference line, or to a lateral reference point. In this last case the text will also define the specific point (height) on the imaginary line at which the lateral reference point is to be located.

- wingover path -

- means the vertically-banked ("knife edge") flight path segment defined as part of the One Reverse Wingover manoeuvre (Rule 4.2.16.3, see 4A.25.4).

When words appears in inverted commas (quotation marks) with italics (cursive) script in the following text, this means that they have been taken directly from the relevant manoeuvre Rule.

4A.5   Judging focus

In order to get a complete picture of each manoeuvre, judges should focus their attention on four major aspects:

4A.5.1 Shape: - This is the form or outline of the entire manoeuvre, but shape also relates to the position of each of the figures making up a complete manoeuvre. In manoeuvres consisting of repeated multiple figures (for example: the Four-leaf Clover), an important criteria is that the shape of each individual figure is consistently the same for each repetition. All manoeuvres should be of the shape defined in the various manoeuvre Rules - that is: round loops should be round with no flat spots; square manoeuvres should have clearly defined corners connected by "straight line" flight paths; consecutive manoeuvres should be performed with the second and subsequent manoeuvres all positioned in exactly the same place as the first (superimposed).

4A.5.2 Size: - Manoeuvre sizes are defined in the Rules by specifying line elevation angle (specified in degrees of arc above the normal 1.5 metres upright level flight height). Judges should watch for manoeuvres being flown with their tops above or below the specified 45 degrees, 38 degrees, and 90 degrees line elevation angles - and as a result of such errors, judges should therefore also watch for complete figures which are either larger or smaller than the line elevation angle specified in the relevant Rule. All such errors should be downgraded in the marks awarded by judges. The use of visible fixed terrain reference points at each site to help judges "fix into memory" both the 1.5 metres normal upright and inverted level flight height, and 45 degrees lateral angle (1/8th lap) is recommended. Contest organisers are also encouraged to erect suitable markers at contest sites to assist judges, particularly at sites where suitable natural fixed features are limited. Judges should practice using the available terrain features, plus any erected markers, at each competition site during the calibration flight sessions held before the start of each particular competition (see also 4A.16).

4A.5.3 Intersections: - The judging (and therefore the marking) of the intersections between the various elements of complex manoeuvres is also made easier if judges use fixed terrain reference marks to "fix into memory" the visual position of the model when it passes an intersection point for the first time in a manoeuvre, and then compare that "locked-in" point with the position of the model when it comes to the same intersection point at later stages of the same manoeuvre. As in 4A.5.2 above, the erection of suitable markers is encouraged to assist this practice, particularly at sites which lack suitable fixed terrain reference points (see also 4A.16).

4A.5.4 Bottoms: - Normal upright level flight and inverted level flight is specified in the manoeuvre Rules as being required to be flown at a height 1.5 metres, often with an allowed tolerance of plus/minus 30 cm. These occasions are all clearly described in the following descriptions and judges should mark accordingly, as per 4A.7, 4A.10.2, and 4A.10.3.

4A.6   General comments regarding the marking of manoeuvres

Although models fly on the surface of a hemisphere, from the pilot's perspective all manoeuvres are flown in plane geometry - because all points on the surface of a hemisphere are at an equal distance from the pilot, the pilot sees all manoeuvres as if they were drawn on a flat sheet of paper. But from their position outside the circle, judges are, firstly, not in the ideal position to view manoeuvres, and secondly, they also usually view manoeuvres from a point which is not directly opposite the centre line axis of each manoeuvre. Therefore the judges' marking tasks include a large element of personal analysis and situational awareness that should take their own (less than ideal) viewing position into consideration when awarding marks. There are however a number of precise definitions within the manoeuvre Rules which judges must assess accurately if they are to award fair and consistent marks. These are:

4A.6.1 - Recognition of level flight altitude of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm;

4A.6.2 - Recognition of 45 degrees line elevation height, plus/minus 30 cm;

4A.6.3 - Recognition of 38 degrees line elevation height, plus/minus 30 cm;

4A.6.4 - Recognition of a position directly overhead the centre of the flight circle, plus/minus 60 cm;

4A.6.5 - Recognition of "vertical" climbing and diving flight paths;

4A.6.6 - Recognition of a "horizontal" flight path;

4A.6.7 - Recognition of "maximum 2.1 metres radius" as an abrupt change of direction with the resulting requirement for the model to fly a very tight corner (see also 4A.8);

4A.6.8 - Recognition of the correct "Start" and "Stop" points specified in the Rule for each manoeuvre (as highlighted within the description of each manoeuvre in this document by means of "Start judging at ..... "; and "Stop judging at ..... " sections).

4A.6.9 - Recognition of the fact that all the above "dimensions" are specified as measured from the pilot's viewing point, with due allowance to be made by judges for models flown on different line lengths and for the difference between the pilot's position and the judges' actual viewing position/s.

4A.7   Judging objective errors.

Provided that throughout all the judged laps the model remains inside the tolerance defined in the Rules and provided that it tracks smoothly without any visible height changes (that is, no "hunting") throughout, no downgraded mark should be awarded. A flight track which slightly exceeds the stated tolerance (such as flying 40 cm off the flight track where plus/minus 30 cm is required) should be considered as a "minor" error which would cause the judge to award a mark downgraded by 0.5 points. Flying off the defined flight track by as much as twice the defined tolerance should be considered as a "medium" error, resulting in the award of a mark downgraded by 1 point. Errors of three times the defined tolerance from the defined flight track should be considered as "major", resulting in the award of marks downgraded by 1.5 points. In order to use this method successfully, judges must be trained to recognise flight path deviations of 30 cm and 60 cm at a viewing distance of approximately 45 metres, and this will require relevant and repeated demonstrations to train judges to be able to readily gauge such measurements. Such training is highly recommended for all judges, and such training should also emphasise the varying tolerances defined in the Rule for each manoeuvre and for each segment of each figure of each manoeuvre. See also 4A.10.2 and 4A.10.3.

4A.8   Judging subjective errors.

4A.8.1 - "wobbles" etc: - A phrase such as "the model wobbles during a turn" is subjective, and the degree to which the model wobbles cannot be measured. Similarly, Rules statements such as " ... the model makes two smooth, stable laps ...", are difficult to apply when faced with the task of translating a certain lack of smoothness into an actual mark to be awarded to a competitor. As a basic guide, judges should consider terms such as stability and smoothness to be conditions defined by the absence of "wobbles", "jerks", and/or "hunting". Therefore "wobbles", "jerks", and/or "hunting" are errors, and each judge should decide on the extent of each such error seen and should award a downgraded mark according to the severity of each of these errors that he/she has observed. See also 4A.10.2 and 4A.10.3.

4A.8.2 - Turn radii: - Similarly, judges should recognise that the intent of the Sporting Code regarding corner radii in manoeuvres such as Square Loops, Square Eights, Triangles, etc, is that models should turn as sharply (tightly) as possible. Therefore, although it is not possible for judges to accurately measure whether or not a model has or has not made a turn of between 1.5 and 2.1 metres radius, the intent of the Sporting Code is clearly that models should turn as tightly as possible when making such turns. Therefore judges should award the highest marks to models turning the tightest (sharpest) corners (provided that the required line elevation angles and/or the model's pitch angles have also been achieved), and they should award the lowest marks to models making the largest (softest) such turns

4A.9   Error interpretation

Each manoeuvre Rule states which errors shall be considered as errors but nothing is written about the relative importance of those errors. The judges' task is therefore twofold in this respect - first, he/she has to count the total number of errors committed - second, he/she must also decide on the extent to which each of those errors has deviated from the standard specified in each manoeuvre Rule. As a general principle it therefore follows that a manoeuvre which is flown with a large number of major errors should result in judges awarding a lower mark than for a manoeuvre which is flown with just a few, only minor errors. However, judges should also note that if a manoeuvre is flown with a very large number of errors, although each of those errors may be individually judged as being only a minor deviation from the manoeuvre Rule, it could be quite correct to award a lower score for that manoeuvre than for another manoeuvre which is flown with only a few errors, but where each of those errors is individually judged as being a major deviation from the manoeuvre Rule. This is precisely one of the skills that judges are expected to develop and apply! See also 4A.10 2 and 4A.10.3.

4A.10   Awarding marks

4A.10.1 - Segmented and multiple manoeuvres: - Many manoeuvres have been described in this document as consisting of several figures, and in many of those manoeuvres those figures have in turn been broken down into separate segments for judging purposes. But all these segments and figures should be combined to result in the award of only a single mark for the complete manoeuvre. In addition, many manoeuvres detailed in the manoeuvre Rules consist of multiple (repeated) figures. Once again judges should award only a single mark for each such manoeuvre (for example: the Three Consecutive Inside Loops; the Two Horizontal Square Eights; etc).

4A.10.2 - Principles of marking: - Judges should only score (mark) manoeuvres between the points " Start judging at: .... " and " Stop judging at: .... ", as set out in each of the manoeuvre descriptions in this document. When the model reaches the "Start judging at .... " point for each manoeuvre, each judge should assume that the manoeuvre will be flown within all the "dimensions" and other requirements defined in the relevant manoeuvre Rule. (This would of course mean that the judge should award the full maximum available 10 points if he/she has seen no errors by the time the manoeuvre is completed). But as the model proceeds through the manoeuvre, each judge will (usually) observe some deviations from the manoeuvre Rule requirements, so he/she should then mentally deduct point/s (or half point/s) from the potential maximum of 10 points whenever a deviation is seen. The number of points or half points to be deducted for each error by each judge will of course depend on his/her judgement as to whether each of those deviations is a "minor" error, a "medium" error, or a "major" error, as described in 4A.7 above. So after the model has reached the "Stop judging at ... " point for each manoeuvre, the judges' task is then to total all the points and half points which have been mentally deducted during the manoeuvre, and the final mark to be entered into the score sheet is simply the maximum available 10 points, minus the total of all the points mentally deducted by the judge while the manoeuvre was being flown. This deduction method, while not easy to learn, and while requiring a considerable amount of instruction and practice, does offer the advantage of coming very close to producing repeatable results when using a consistent marking bandwidth for weighting each error seen.

4A.10.3 - Marking bandwidth: - The following scale of Marks is listed to provide judges with a practical tool applicable to the principles in 4A.10.2 above:

Judges' Observations:

Mark awarded:

- Nil deviations from Sporting Code "dimensions" }
and requirements seen:

= Mark 10 points

- Very few minor errors seen:

= Marks range 9.5 to 8 points (Note: 1)

- Few and/or minor errors seen:

= Marks range 8 to 5.5 points (Note: 2)

- More and/or medium errors seen:

= Marks range 5.5 to 3 points (Note: 2)

- Many and/or major errors seen:

= Marks range 3 to 0.5 points (Note: 3)

Notes for Marking bandwidth table:

Note 1.- The number of points actually awarded for each manoeuvre will be dependant upon the total number of errors seen by each judge, and whether or not each judge decides that these are all minor errors only.

Note 2 - The number of points actually awarded for each manoeuvre will be dependant upon the total number of errors seen by each judge, and the extent to which each judge decides that each error is either a minor, a medium, or a major deviation from the manoeuvre Rule.

Note 3 - As per Note 2 above, but the mark 0 (zero) points should be reserved for manoeuvres which are not attempted at all; for manoeuvres which are incomplete; and for manoeuvres where the incorrect number of repeat figures are flown.

Judges should use the entire Marks bandwidth available as above. This means awarding a Mark of 10 points to any manoeuvre where the judge does not observe any of the errors listed in the manoeuvre Rules and/or in this Judging Instructions document - such as an Inverted Flight manoeuvre where the model remains truly stable and without "hunting" inside the allowed height tolerance of plus/minus 30 cm throughout all judged laps. But as an example of the opposite extreme, a Square Eights manoeuvre which is flown with line elevation angles of over 60 degrees, with "soft" corners, with angled sides, with slanted tops, with pullouts which are both too high and too low, and with intersections which are missed by several metres (in other words, a manoeuvre which is barely recognisable), should be awarded a Mark of perhaps 1 or 0.5 points. Note once more the comments in paragraph 4A.9.

It should also be noted that since nothing written anywhere in the Sporting Code defines terms such as general impression and flying style, accurate and repeatable marking really depends "only" (!) upon each judge deciding on the total number of errors committed and the degree to which each error has deviated from the flight track defined in each manoeuvre Rule. This includes subjective elements, where (apart from stability, which can be marked as discussed in 4A.8), the reality is that each competitor's score should depend "simply" (!) and solely upon the total number of all the errors observed by each judge, coupled with each judges decision as to the degree of severity of each of those errors.

4A.11   Consideration of external factors

With the exceptions mentioned in Landing (Rule 4.2.16.16), "normal" external factors should not in any way affect the marks awarded by judges. So it is not permitted for judges' marks to allow for the effects of gusty winds in marking any phase of any of manoeuvre, except during the ground rollout phase of the Landing manoeuvre - for example, if a sudden fierce gust of wind coming from behind the model causes it to flip over or tip onto its nose during the last part of the ground rollout.

This therefore means that factors such as wind, turbulence, gusts, and any other factors outside the competitor's control should not normally influence the marks awarded by the judges. However, some individual exceptions to this general observation may occur occasionally - for example, a safety-related exception should be imminent danger of electrocution by thunderstorm. Exceptions should also be made where a completely "accidental" incident prevents the proper execution of a manoeuvre, or forces a competitor to abandon a manoeuvre or a flight altogether (for example, an animal wandering into the flight circle). In cases where the head judge feels that such external factors have influenced the result of a competition flight, he should use his discretion and authority to recommend that the Contest Director grants a reflight. See also 4A.20 and 4A.38.

4A.12   Judging a manoeuvre missed by a judge

If a judge misses the observation of a manoeuvre for any reason, he or she should not mark an estimated "typical" mark for the missed manoeuvre. Instead the judge who missed the manoeuvre should clearly write an "X" symbol on his/her score sheet in the space for the mark for the manoeuvre which has been missed. This symbol should then alert the scores tabulating team to use a procedure which calculates the average of the marks for that manoeuvre as awarded by all the other judges. This calculated average mark should then be entered into the missing mark ("X") area by the scores tabulating team before they proceed with further processing of all the remaining marks from that flight.

4A.13   Results awareness

In order to prevent influence of any kind, no judge should look at tabulated results scores and/or at competitors' placings until after the completion of a competition. Neither should judges discuss individual official flights, the execution of manoeuvres, and/or the marks awarded (and/or the tabulated results and scores), with anyone at all during the whole competition, including other judges, competitors, or team managers. The head judge should ensure that all members of the Judges Panel observe these requirements throughout the competition.


4A.14   Judges' preparations to be made at Competition Sites

Well before the start of official competition flights, the head judge should meet the competition organiser and F2B Contest Director to define and/or verify:

4A.14.1   Head judge in charge;

4A.14.2   Classification procedures;

4A.14.3   Score calculation procedures;

4A.14.4   Competitors' flying order;

4A.14.5   Competitor call up procedure;

4A.14.6   Nominated official time keeper; how times will be communicated to Judges Panel;

4A.14.7   Duration of rounds;

4A.14.8   Meal & break times; seating arrangements; sun shades; umbrellas; etc;

4A.14.9   Availability of score recorders;

4A.14.10   Score sheet transportation;

4A.14.11   Competitors' pull-test procedure;

4A.14.12   The availability of fixed terrain reference points, and/or erected markers (refer 4A.5.2 and 4A.5.3).

4A.15   Judges' calibration ("warm-up") flights

A minimum of two warm-up flights, to be flown immediately prior to the beginning of official competition flights, should be flown per each round (or per each day) of the contest by volunteer pilots selected by random draw from amongst all registered competitors. Alternatively, one such calibration flight may be flown by the reserve member from the team of the country whichn is running the competition.

After each warm-up flight the judges should not discuss the individual scores they have awarded to each flight. Instead they should go through a manoeuvre-by-manoeuvre discussion, comparing and discussing their individual assessments of each error (including the severity of those errors) that they have seen during every segment of every figure and every manoeuvre flown. In order to avoid the definitely undesirable "levelling" of marks awarded by each judge, the actual marks (scores) awarded by each judge should not be discussed - rather, the discussions should focus upon the number, extent, and degree of severity of each error seen. The content of all such judges' warm-up flight discussions should not be made public.

4A.16   Sighting devices and terrain reference points

Hand-held sighting devices should not be used. Whenever possible, fixed terrain reference points should be used to define intersections, "verticals", line elevation angles, and 1/8th lap (45 degrees laterally) bottom manoeuvre lengths and/or lap segments. As per 4A.5.2 and 4A.5.3, contest organisers are also encouraged to erect suitable markers (for example, for the 45 degrees lateral dimension specified in the relevant manoeuvre Rules), especially when a particular contest site lacks natural fixed reference points. It is recommended that such reference points and/or markers be recalibrated for each individual competition site on the occasion of each competition held at that site, and that these should be discussed privately between the judges prior to the start of warm-up flights. Final agreement on useable natural reference points and/or erected markers should be reached between all members of the Judges Panel before the start of official competition flights.

4A.17   Time-keeping

It is common practice to assign official time-keeping duties to the F2B Circle Marshall. Before starting official competition flights judges should confirm that this is indeed the case. Judges should also define the method/s by which the results of this timekeeping will be signalled to the Judges Panel. The times recorded by the defined official timekeeper are binding, but as a cross reference it is recommended that the head judge runs his own stopwatch in parallel to the official timekeeper (see also 4A.38.10).

4A.18   Judges' position

The panel of judges should be placed in a position defined by each competitor prior to starting his/her official flight. If no change to the judges' position for the previous official flight is requested by the pilot of the next official flight, then the position of the panel of judges at the time of starting the next official flight is assumed to be correct. Judges may however, at their own discretion, move from the positions originally taken at the start of an official flight by up to plus/minus 1/8th of a lap during an official flight.

4A.19   Contest supervision

Judges should closely observe the running of the contest in general, and the proceedings on the F2B flight circle in particular. Where not defined by the organiser, the panel of judges shall name a head judge as their speaker for addressing the Contest Director. The head judge shall intervene in the running of the contest if the goal of fairness appears to be in danger, and the head judge may at all times take safety-related decisions and order suitable remedial action.

4A.20   Consistency

Judges should use a consistent scale of awarding marks throughout all the rounds of a competition. This scale should be a personal instrument based upon the number of errors seen, plus the severity of each error. This personal scale should have been arrived at by careful study of the current Sporting Code, study of this Judging Instructions document, and as a result of practical judging experience. Once the official flights of a competition have started, each judge's personal scale should remain firm and fixed and should not (for example) become influenced by factors such as discussions with others (including other judges), by the weather, by model speed, by model type or engine sound, or by an awareness of the reputation or results previously achieved by any particular pilot being judged. In this respect it should be noted that in the following manoeuvre descriptions the words model and competitor (and not pilot) have been used!


4A.21   Definition of an Attempt (Rule 4.2.5)

4A.21.1 - " ... called to fly": - Means that an official calls the competitor to enter the circle. The competitor must enter the circle within two minutes of being called. This leads to a Critical point: - Judges are advised to watch for the competitor (or for an official) calling for an attempt if the competitor does not enter the circle within the two minutes time limit.

4A.21.2 - " ... within three minutes of the starting signal": - Means that the model does not become airborne within three minutes of giving the starting signal. This again leads to a Critical point: - Judges are advised to watch for the competitor (or an official) calling for an attempt if the model does not become airborne within three minutes from the starting signal.

4A.22   Execution of Manoeuvres (Sporting Code 4.2.11 & 4.2.12)

4A.22.1 - Judging " ... a minimum of 1 laps.": - Competitors may choose to fly more than, but may not fly less than, 1 intervening laps between each manoeuvre. If a manoeuvre is performed after less than 1 intervening laps have been flown, then that manoeuvre should be awarded a mark of 0 (zero) points, and 0 (zero) points should also be awarded to every other manoeuvre where less than 1 laps are flown between manoeuvres.

4A.22.2 - Judging the height of intervening laps: - The height of the laps flown between manoeuvres is not specified in the Sporting Code and should therefore not be judged or marked.

4A.22.3 - Judging the sequence of manoeuvres: - Every manoeuvre flown out of the sequence specified in the Sporting Code (Rule 4.2.15) should be awarded a mark of 0 (zero) points.

4A.22.4 - Judging incomplete manoeuvres: - Every manoeuvre which is not completed by the competitor should be awarded 0 (zero) points.

4A.22.5 - Judging omitted manoeuvres: - Every manoeuvre omitted from the List of Aerobatics Manoeuvres (Rule 4.2.15.) should be awarded a mark of 0 (zero) points.

4A.22.6 - Judging manoeuvres flown after a manoeuvre has been omitted: - After an omitted manoeuvre, all succeeding manoeuvres should be judged and awarded points as usual, provided that the succeeding manoeuvres are all flown in the sequence listed (Rule 4.2.15).

4A.22.7 - Judging manoeuvres flown with an incorrect number of multiple figures (for example: the Three Consecutive Inside Loops manoeuvre required (Rule 4.2.16.6); but the manoeuvre is actually flown with 2 or 4 loops): - All manoeuvres flown in such ways are incorrect and should be awarded a mark of 0 (zero) points.

4A.22.8 - Attempted manoeuvre/s: - If a competitor makes more than one attempt at any one manoeuvre during one official flight the judges should mark the first attempt in accordance with the instructions listed in this paragraph and the relevant following manoeuvre description paragraph. Any further attempt/s at the same manoeuvre during the same official flight should not be marked at all.

4A.23   Starting (Rule 4.2.16.1.)

4A.23.1 - Start of timing: - The timekeeper and/or judge/s should start timing when the competitor gives a hand signal indicating that he/she is ready to start the motor/s. Award 10 points if the beginning of the Take-off ground roll takes place within one minute from the start of timing; award 0 (zero) points if the beginning of the Take-off ground roll is after one minute from the start of timing.

4A.23.2 - Critical point: - Judges should maintain their full attention on the model during the whole Take-off ground roll (4A.23.1) and the three laps following lift of, not taking their eyes off the model to verify the total time taken for starting the motor and beginning the Take-off ground roll until after the third lap of the whole take-off manoeuvre has been completed (4A.24.5).


4A.24   Take-off (Rule 4.2.16.2.)

4A.24.1 - Start judging at: - The beginning of the Take-off ground roll.

4A.24.2 - Judging the ground roll and lift-off segment: - From the beginning of the Take-off ground roll to the point of lift-off. Lift-off should not occur before 4.5 metres from start of ground roll, nor later than 1/4 of a lap. "Smooth" means without a "sudden jump" into the air.

4A.24.3 - Judging the climb out and levelling-off segment: - From lift-off, up to and including levelling-off. Levelling-off should occur at a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm, and should occur exactly overhead the point of the beginning of the take-off ground roll. "Gradual" means that the rate of climb should be constant throughout the climb from lift-off until levelling-off into normal upright level flight. "Smooth" means a "jerk free" transition from climbing flight to level flight.

4A.24.4 - Judging the level flight segment: - Two laps, from the end of levelling-off to the end of lap three. "Smooth laps of normal level flight" means that the model does not deviate from a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.24.5 - Stop judging at: - The end of lap three, exactly overhead the point of the beginning of the Take-off ground roll.

4A.24.6 - Critical points are: - Take-off ground roll shorter than 4.5 metres or longer than 1/4 lap. Model "jumping" into the air. Reaching level flight altitude too quickly. Climb rate not gradual (for example: too shallow at first and then too steep later). Levelling-off before or after passing exactly overhead the point of the beginning of the Take-off ground roll. Not maintaining a level flight height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm throughout upright level flight, lap numbers two and three.

4A.25   One Reverse Wing Over (Rule 4.2.16.3.)

4A.25.1 - Entry: - From normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.25.2 - Start judging at: - The beginning of the first turn into a "vertical" climb.

4A.25.3 - Judging turn radii: - All turns should be of 1.5 metres radius, maximum 2.1 metres radius.

4A.25.4 - Judging the first "vertical" climb and dive segment: - From the beginning of the first turn into a "vertical" climb, over the competitor's head, into a "vertical" dive, until the end of the second turn (recovering from the "vertical" dive into inverted level flight). "Passing directly over the flyer's head" means that the model should pass through an imaginary line projected at right angles upwards from the centre of the ground circle. "Cutting the ground circle in half" means that the judges should "mentally project" the start and finish points of the complete line of "vertical" flight downwards onto the ground, with the result that these two points are exactly opposite each other on the ground circle if the first "vertical" climb and "vertical" dive segment has been correctly flown.

4A.25.5 - Judging the inverted "horizontal" level flight segment: - After recovery from the first "vertical" dive, until the start of the second turn into the second "vertical" climb. The inverted level flight segment should be flown at a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm. The length of the inverted flight segment, including turns, should be exactly a lap.

4A.25.6 - Judging the second "vertical" climb and dive segment: - The point at which the model first reaches a "vertical" attitude in this second "vertical" climb should be exactly the same as the point at which the model first reached a "vertical" attitude at the start of the first "vertical" climb. "Over the centre of the circle" means that the model should pass through an imaginary line projected upwards at right angles from the centre of the ground circle. The point where the model starts its recovery to normal upright level flight at the end of the whole manoeuvre should be exactly opposite the point where the model first reached "vertical" flight attitude at the start of the whole manoeuvre. Recovery should bring the model to normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.25.7 - Stop judging at: - The end of the fourth turn (recovery to normal upright level flight).

4A.25.8 - Critical points are: - First climb not "vertical". Model not passing through the right angled line projected upwards from the centre of the flight circle. "Vertical" climb and/or dive segments being curved (meaning not "straight line") flight path/s. Recovery/ies to inverted level flight and/or to normal upright level flight not at a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm. Not maintaining a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm during inverted level flight. The "turning points" defined above not being exactly opposite each other. Turn radii not equal in all four turns and/or exceed 2.1 metres.

4A.26   Three Consecutive Inside Loops (Rule 4.2.16.4.)

4A.26.1 - Entry: - From normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.26.2 - Start judging at: - The start of the first loop (as the model departs its normal upright level flight path).

4A.26.3 - Judging the first loop: - From normal upright level flight the model should fly upwards along a circular flight path to a height specified in the Sporting Code as a line elevation angle of 45 degrees, at which point it should be inverted. The model should continue, without interruption, its circular flight path downwards until reaching its first normal upright level flight height, at which point it should be upright. "Round" means no visible deviations from a circular flight path. "Smooth" means without flat spots or "jerks". When the model reaches a "vertical" attitude for the first time this has defined the lateral reference for the whole manoeuvre.

4A.26.4 - Judging the second and third loops: - The model should follow a flight path exactly as described above. The second and third loops should be flown in exactly the same position (meaning that the second loop should be superimposed exactly on top of the first loop, and the third exactly on top of the second), and all three should be of exactly the same size.

4A.26.5 - Stop judging at: - The end of the third loop as the model completes recovery into normal upright level flight.

4A.26.6 - Exit procedure: - Should be flown as recommended by this rule but should not be judged or marked.

4A.26.7 - Critical points are: - Line elevation angle/s above 45 degrees (loop/s too big). Line elevation angle/s less than 45 degrees (loop/s too small). Bottom/s of loops not all at a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm. Tops and/or bottoms of loops are not all at the same heights. Shapes are not truly circular. Flight path is not steady (examples: uneven rate of turn; "wobbling" flight). Flat spots on any of the loops. Second and third loops are not exactly the same size as the first. Second and third loops are not in exactly the same position (not superimposed upon) the first loop.

4A.27   Two Laps Inverted Flight (Rule 4.2.16.5.)

4A.27.1 - Entry: - From inverted level flight at a height of 1.5 metres.

4A.27.2 - Start judging at: - The beginning of lap three (as counted from the exit point of the Three Consecutive Inside Loops manoeuvre - Rule 4.2.16.4).

4A.27.3 - Judging inverted flight height: - Should be at 1.5 metres. "Stable" means that the model does not deviate by more than plus/minus 30 cm from 1.5 metres. "Smooth" means the absence of visible height deviations.

4A.27.4 - Stop judging at: - The end of lap four (as counted from the exit point of the Consecutive Inside Loops manoeuvre - 4.2.16.4).

4A.27.5 - Critical points are: - The first inverted flight height at the beginning of lap three is not 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm. Model deviates more than plus/minus 30 cm from a height of 1.5 metres during the two judged laps. The model shows visible height corrections.

4A.28   Three Consecutive Outside Loops (Rule 4.2.16.6.)

4A.28.1 - Entry: - From level inverted flight at a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.28.2 - Start judging at: - The beginning of the first loop (as the model departs its level inverted flight path).

4A.28.3 - Judging the first loop: - From level inverted flight the model should fly upwards along a circular flight path to a height specified in the Sporting Code as a line elevation angle of 45 degrees, at which point it should be upright. The model should continue, without interruption, its circular flight path downwards until reaching its first inverted flight height, at which point it should be inverted. "Round" means no visible deviations from a circular flight path. "Smooth" means without flat spots or "jerks". When the model reaches a "vertical" attitude for the first time this has defined the lateral reference for the whole manoeuvre.

4A.28.4 - Judging the second and third loops: - The model should fly a flight path exactly as set out in the individual segments above. The second and third loops should be flown in exactly the same position (meaning that the second loop should be superimposed exactly on top of the first loop and the third loop onto the second) and all three should be of exactly the same size.

4A.28.5 - Stop judging at: - The end of the third loop, when the model passes the 1.5 metres normal flight level in inverted flight.

4A.28.6 - Exit procedure: - Should be flown as recommended by this rule but should not be judged or marked.

4A.28.7 - Critical points are: - Line elevation angle/s above 45 degrees (loop/s too big). Line elevation angle/s less than 45 degrees (loop/s too small). Bottom of loop/s not at a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm. Tops and/or bottoms of loop/s are not all at the same heights. Shapes are not circular. Flight path is not steady (example: "wobbling" or "jerky" flight). Flat spots on any of the loops. Second and third loops are not exactly the same size as the first. Second and third loops are not in exactly the same position (not superimposed upon) the first loop.

4A.29   Two Consecutive Inside Square Loops (Rule 4.2.16.7.)

4A.29.1 - Entry: - From normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.29.2 - Start judging: - From the point in normal upright level flight where the model begins its first turn into a "vertical" climb.

4A.29.3 - Judging turn radii: - All turns should be of 1.5 metres radius, maximum 2.1 metres radius.

4A.29.4 - Judging the first turn plus "vertical" climbing segment: - The model should reach and maintain a flight path which is at right angles to the ground.

4A.29.5 - Judging the second turn plus top "horizontal" segment: - The model should turn into inverted level flight to reach a height of 45 degrees line angle elevation as it becomes inverted. The top segment should be flown in inverted level flight with the flight path parallel to the ground.

4A.29.6 - Judging the third turn plus "vertical" diving segment: - The model should reach and maintain a flight path which is at right angles to the ground.

4A.29.7 - Judging the fourth turn plus bottom "horizontal" segment: - The model should recover to normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. The length of the bottom segment, including both turns, should be exactly 1/8th of a lap.

4A.29.8 - Judging the complete second loop: - The model should fly a flight path exactly as set out in the individual segments above. The second loop should be flown in exactly the same position (meaning that the second loop should be superimposed exactly onto the first loop) and should be of exactly the same size as the first loop.

4A.29.9 - Stop judging: - In normal upright level flight, at exactly the point where the model started its first turn into a "vertical" climb at the beginning of the complete manoeuvre.

4A.29.10 - Critical points are: - Line elevation angle/s above 45 degrees (loop/s too big; top segment/s flown too high). Line elevation angle/s less than 45 degrees (loop/s too small; top segment/s flown too low). Turn radii are not equal, and/or exceed 2.1 metres radius. Climb and/or dive segments not "vertical". Top segment/s not level (not parallel to the ground and/or not "straight line" flight throughout). Bottom segment/s not at a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm. Length of bottom segment/s greater than/less than 1/8th of a lap. Loop/s are either wider than their height/s and/or higher than their width/s. Sides are not "straight line" flight. Flight path is not steady (example: "wobbling" flight). Second loop is not exactly the same size as the first. Second loop is not in exactly the same position (meaning not superimposed exactly upon) the first loop.

4A.30   Two Consecutive Outside Square Loops (Rule 4.2.16.8.)

4A.30.1 - Entry: - From upright level flight at a height of 45 degrees line angle elevation.

4A.30.2 - Start judging: - From the point in normal upright level flight where the model starts its first turn downwards into a "vertical" dive.

4A.30.3 - Judging turn radii: - All turns should be of 1.5 metres radius, maximum 2.1 metres radius.

4A.30.4 - Judging the first turn plus "vertical" dive segment: - The model should reach and maintain a flight path which is at right angles to the ground.

4A.30.5 - Judging the second turn plus bottom "horizontal" segment: - The model should recover from diving flight to inverted level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. The bottom segment should be flown with the flight path parallel to the ground. The length of the bottom segment, including both turns, should be 1/8th of a lap.

4A.30.6 - Judging the third turn and "vertical" climbing segment: - The should model reach and maintain a flight path which is at right angles to the ground.

4A.30.7 - Judging the fourth turn and top "horizontal" segment: - The model should recover into upright level flight at a height of 45 degrees line angle elevation. The top segment should be flown in level upright flight with the flight path parallel to the ground.

4A.30.8 - Judging the complete second loop: - The model should fly exactly as set out in the individual segments above. The second loop should be flown in exactly the same position (meaning that the second loop should be superimposed exactly on top of the first loop) and should be of exactly the same size as the first loop.

4A.30.9 - Stop judging: - In level flight, at exactly the point where the model started its first turn into a "vertical" dive at the beginning of the complete manoeuvre.

4A.30.10 - Exit procedure: - Should be flown as recommended by this rule but should not be judged or marked.

4A.30.11 - Critical points are: - Manoeuvre entry height not within the plus/minus 30 cm tolerance. Model not in level flight when starting first turn. Line elevation angle/s above 45 degrees (loop/s too big; top segment/s flown too high). Line elevation angle/s less than 45 degrees (loop/s too small; top segment/s flown too low). Turn radii are not equal, and/or exceed 2.1 metres radius. Climb and/or dive segments not "vertical. Top segment/s too high and/or too low (not at 45 degrees line angle elevation). Top segment/s not level (parallel to the ground; not "straight line" flight throughout). Bottom segment/s not at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. Length of bottom segment/s greater than/less than 1/8th of a lap. Loop/s are either wider than their height/s and/or higher than their width/s. Sides are not "straight line" flight. Flight path is not steady (example: "wobbling" flight). Second loop is not exactly the same size as the first. Second loop is not in exactly the same position (not superimposed exactly upon) the first loop.

4A.31   Two Consecutive Inside Triangular Loops (Rule 4.2.16.9.)

4A.31.1 - Entry: - From normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.31.2 - Start judging: - From a point approximately 1/8th lap of a lap of level upright flight before the model starts its first turn into an inverted climb.

4A.31.3 - Judging turn radii: - All turns should be of 1.5 metres radius, maximum 2.1 metres radius.

4A.31.4 - Judging the first (climbing) turn plus inverted climb segment: - The model should reach and maintain a "straight line" inverted climb flight path at approximately 30 degrees past right angles to the ground.

4A.31.5 - Judging the second (diving) turn segment: - The model should turn through approximately 60 degrees, reaching and maintaining a "straight line" inverted dive flight path at approximately 30 degrees less than right angles to the ground. The maximum height reached during this turn should not exceed a line elevation angle of 45 degrees.

4A.31.6 - Judging the third turn plus bottom "horizontal" segment: - The model should recover to normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. The length of the bottom segment, including both turns, should be equal to the length of both the climbing and the diving flight segments including their respective turns.

4A.31.7 - Judging the complete second loop:- The model should fly exactly as set out in the individual segments above. The second loop should be flown in exactly the same position (meaning that the second loop should be superimposed on top of the first loop) and should be of exactly the same size as the first loop.

4A.31.8 - Stop judging: - With the model in normal level upright flight, at exactly the same point as the model started its first turn at the start of the complete manoeuvre.

4A.31.9 - Critical points are: - Line elevation angle/s above 45 degrees (loop/s too big). Line elevation angle/s less than 45 degrees (loop/s too small). Turn radii are not equal, and/or exceed 2.1 metres. Climbing and or diving flight segment/s not "straight line" flight path/s and/or flight path/s not at approximately 60 degrees to the ground. Bottom segment/s not "straight line" flight, and/or not parallel to the ground, and/or not at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. Length of individual segments (meaning sides of triangles) not equal. Tops and/or bottoms of loops are not all at the same heights. Second loop is not exactly the same size as the first. Second loop is not in exactly the same position (not superimposed exactly upon) the first loop.

4A.32   Two Horizontal Eights (Rule 4.2.16.10.)

4A.32.1 - Entry: - From normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.32.2 - Start judging: - When the model passes the intersection point for the first time.

4A.32.3 - Locating the intersection: - When the model reaches a "vertical" climbing attitude for the first time this has defined the intersection point for the whole manoeuvre (i.e. after 1/4 of a full loop has been flown).

4A.32 4 - Judging the first inside loop: - From normal upright level flight the model should fly upwards along a circular flight path to a height specified in the Sporting Code as a line elevation angle of 45 degrees, at which point it should be inverted. The model should continue, without interruption, its circular flight path downwards until reaching its first normal upright level flight height, at which point it should be upright. The model should then, without interruption, continue its circular flight path for a further 1/4 of a loop until reaching the intersection point, at which point it should be momentarily "vertical". This is exactly the same as described for the Inside Loops manoeuvre (Rule 4.2.16.4), and "Round" means no visible deviations from a circular flight path. "Smooth" means without flat spots or "jerks". The height of the bottom of the first inside loop should be 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.32. 5 - Judging passage through the intersection point and transition into the first outside loop: - The intersection point first defined by the model at the beginning of the manoeuvre (4A.32.3 above) should be maintained throughout the complete manoeuvre. At the time of passing through the intersection point and transitioning to the first outside loop the model should be momentarily in a "vertical" nose up attitude but should not visibly travel in a "straight line" and/or along a "vertical" climbing flight path.

4A.32.6 - Judging the first outside loop (actually 1 complete loop from the intersection point): - After passing through the intersection point the model should continue, without interruption, to fly a complete outside loop as defined for the Outside Loops manoeuvre (Rule 4.2.16.6). This means that the model should fly upwards along a circular flight path to a height specified in the Sporting Code as a line elevation angle of 45 degrees, at which point it should be upright. The model should continue its circular flight path downwards until reaching the inverted flight height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm, at which point it should be inverted. "Round" means no visible deviations from circular. "Smooth" means without flat spots or "jerks". The model should then, without interruption, continue its circular flight path for a further 1/4 of a loop until reaching the intersection point, at which point it should be momentarily "vertical".

4A.32.7 - Judging the second complete figure eight: - The model should follow a flight path exactly as set out in the individual segments above. The second figure eight should be flown in exactly the same position (meaning that the second eight should be superimposed exactly on top of the first eight) and should be of exactly the same size as the first eight.

4A.32.8 - Stop judging: - As the model completes the second figure eight, when passing the intersection point in a "vertical" climb for the fifth and last time.

4A.32.9 - Exit procedure: - Should be flown as recommended by this rule but should not be judged or marked.

4A.32.10 - Critical points are: - Line elevation angle/s above 45 degrees (eight/s too big). Line elevation angle/s less than 45 degrees (eight/s too small). Bottom/s of eight/s not at a height of 1.5 metres, plus/minus 30 cm. Top/s and/or bottom/s of eight/s are not all at the same height. Shapes are not circular. Model not "vertical" when passing through the intersection point. Flat spot/s on any of the eight/s. Model flies a "straight line" segment when passing through the intersection point. The intersection varies from the point first defined by the model. Inside and outside loop/s are too far apart (resulting in an "X"-shaped flight path at the intersection point). The second eight is not exactly the same size as the first. The second eight is not in exactly the same position (not superimposed upon) the first eight.

4A.33   Two Square Horizontal Eights (Rule 4.2.16.11)

4A.33.1 - Entry: From normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.33.2 - Start judging: - With the model in upright level flight, from the point flight where the model starts its first turn upwards into a "vertical" climb for the first time.

4A.33.3 - Judging turn radii: - All turns should be of 1.5 metres radius, maximum 2.1 metres radius.

4A.33.4 - Locating the intersection line: When the model reaches a "vertical" attitude for the first time this has defined the intersection line for the whole manoeuvre.

4A.33.5 - Judging the first climbing turn and "vertical" climbing segment of the first (inside) square loop of the first figure eight: - The model should turn into a "vertical" climb, reaching and maintaining a flight path which is at right angles to the ground.

4A.33.6 - Judging the second turn and top "horizontal" segment of the first (inside) square loop of the first figure eight: - The model should turn into inverted level flight to reach a height of 45 degrees line angle elevation as it becomes inverted. The top segment should be flown with the flight path parallel to the ground.

4A.33.7 - Judging the third turn and "vertical" dive segment of the first (inside) square loop of the first figure eight: - The model should turn into a "vertical" dive, reaching and maintaining a flight path which is at right angles to the ground.

4A.33.8 - Judging the fourth turn and bottom "horizontal" segment of the first (inside) square loop of the first figure eight : - The model should recover to normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. The length of the bottom segment, including both turns, should be exactly 1/8th of a lap.

4A.33.9 - Judging the first climbing turn and "vertical" climb segment of the second (outside) square loop of the first figure eight: - At the end of the previous segment (4A.33.8), the model should turn into a "vertical" climb, reaching and maintaining a flight path which is at right angles to the ground. This flight path should be in exactly the same position as defined by the model at the beginning of the manoeuvre (4A.33.4).

4A.33.10 - Judging the second turn and top "horizontal" segment of the second (outside) square loop of the first figure eight: - The model should turn into upright level flight to reach a height of 45 degrees line angle elevation as it becomes level. The top segment should be flown with the flight path parallel to the ground.

4A.33.11 - Judging the third turn "vertical" dive segment of the second (outside) square loop of the first figure eight: - The model should turn into a "vertical" dive, reaching and maintaining a flight path which is at right angles to the ground.

4A.33. 12 - Judging the fourth turn and bottom "horizontal" segment of the second (outside) square loop of the first figure eight: - The model should recover to inverted level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. The length of the bottom segment, including both turns, should be exactly 1/8th of a lap.

4A.33.13 - Judging the complete second figure eight: - The model should follow a flight path exactly as set out in the individual segments above. The second figure eight should be flown in exactly the same position (meaning that the second eight should be superimposed exactly on top of the first eight) and should be of exactly the same size as the first eight.

4A.33. 14 - Judging the last turn and "vertical" climb exit from the manoeuvre: - At the end of the second bottom "horizontal" segment of the fourth loop the model should turn into a "vertical" climb, reaching and maintaining a flight path which is at right angles to the ground. This flight path should be in exactly the same position as defined by the model at the beginning of the manoeuvre (4A.33.4).

4A.33.15 - Stop judging: - As the model completes the second figure eight, when passing a height of 45 degrees line elevation in a "vertical" climb for the last time.

4A.33.16 - Exit procedure: - Should be flown as recommended by this rule but should not be judged or marked.

4A.33.17 - Critical points are: - Line elevation angle/s above 45 degrees (eight/s too big). Line elevation angle/s less than 45 degrees (eight/s too small). Bottom of eight/s not at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. Tops of eight/s are not all at the same heights. Turn radii are not equal, and/or exceed 2.1 metres radius. Bottom segment/s are not equal, and/or are longer or shorter than 1/8th lap. Bottom segment/s are not flown parallel to the ground, and/or are not flown at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. "Vertical" climb and/or dive segment/s are not flown at right angles to the ground. Figure/s are wider than their height/s. Figure/s are higher than their width/s. Side/s of figures are not "straight line" flight path/s, and/or the model "wobbles". The intersection line first defined by the model varies in subsequent segments of the manoeuvre. The second eight is not exactly the same size as the first. The second eight is not in exactly the same position (not superimposed upon) the first eight.

4A.34   Two Vertical Eights (Rule 4.2.16.12)

4A.34.1 - Entry: - From normal upright level flight the model should fly upwards along a circular flight path to a height specified in the Sporting Code as a line elevation angle of 45 degrees, at which point it should be inverted.

4A.34.2 - Start judging at: - After the model has flown the first half of an inside loop, as it passes through the intersection point for the first time.

4A.34.3 - Locating the intersection: - The intersection of the whole manoeuvre is defined when the model passes through inverted level flight at a height of 45 degrees line elevation angle for the first time.

4A.34.4 - Judging the first segment (inside loop): - As the model passes through the intersection point for the first time it should continue to fly a complete round inside loop. The bottom of this loop should be at a height 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. The loop should be completed by the model returning to the inverted position at a height of 45 degrees line elevation angle. "Round" means no visible deviations from a circular flight path.

4A.34.5 - Judging the model's passage through the intersection point and transition to the second (outside) loop: - The flight path should touch the intersection point and this point should be maintained throughout the entire manoeuvre. At the time of passing through the intersection point and transitioning into the second (outside) loop the model should momentarily be in a level inverted flight attitude but should not visibly follow a "straight line" flight path. Also, the model should neither climb nor dive during this momentary period of inverted flight.

4A.34.6 - Judging the second segment (outside loop): - As it passes through the intersection point the model should continue on without interruption, flying a complete outside round loop. The bottom of this second loop should be at a height of 45 degrees line elevation angle and the top should be at 90 degree line elevation. "Round" means no visible deviations from a circular flight path.

4A.34.7 - Locating the "vertical" axis: - The centres of both loops should be positioned on an imaginary line drawn upwards from the ground at right angles.

4A.34.8 - Judging the complete second figure eight: - The model should follow a flight path exactly as set out in the individual segments above. The second figure eight should be flown in exactly the same position (meaning that the second eight should be superimposed exactly on top of the first eight) and should be of exactly the same size as the first eight.

4A.34.9 - Stop judging: - As the model completes the second figure eight, at the moment when it reaches inverted level flight at a height of 45 degrees line elevation angle.

4A.34.10 - Exit procedure: - Should be flown as recommended by this rule but should not be judged or marked.

4A.34.11 - Critical points are: - The lower (inside) loop/s are too big with line elevation angle/s exceeding 45 degrees. The upper (outside) loop/s are too big/too small with line elevation angle/s not reaching or exceeding 1.2 metres from 90 degrees line elevation. Bottom/s of lower loop/s not at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. The intersection point is not at a height of 45 degrees line elevation angle, plus/minus 30 cm. All loops are not of the same size. The loops are not round. The loops show flat spots. The model is not momentarily parallel to the ground when passing through the intersection point. The model follows a climbing and/or diving flight path when passing through the intersection point. Loops overlap. The intersection flight path is "S"-shaped. The loops are too far apart. The intersection point flight path is "X"-shaped. The intersection point varies from the position first defined by the model during the first inside loop. Loops are not all positioned on the "vertical" axis (4A.34.3). The second eight is not exactly the same size as the first. The second eight is not in exactly the same position (not superimposed upon) the first eight.

4A.35   One Hourglass Figure (Rule 4.2.16.13)

4A.35.1 - Entry: - From normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.35.2 - Start judging: - With the model in upright level flight, from the point where the model starts its first turn into a climb for the first time.

4A.35.3 - Judging turn radii: - All turns should be of 1.5 metres radius, maximum 2.1 metres radius.

4A.35.4 - Judging the first turn and inverted climb segment: - The model should reach and maintain an inverted climb with a "straight line" flight path angled at approximately 30 degrees past right angles to the ground. That climb should be continued until terminated with an outside turn which should result in the model following a wingover path. That wingover path should be located at 90 degrees to the centre line axis of the whole manoeuvre.

4A.35.5 - Judging the "overhead" segment and third turn: - This segment should be flown in "straight line" flight and the length of this segment, including its two turns, should be slightly more than 1/8th of a lap. This segment should be finished by an outside turn through approximately 60 degrees into an inverted dive.

4A.35.6 - Judging the inverted dive segment: - The model should reach and maintain an inverted dive with a "straight line" flight path angled at approximately 60 degrees to the ground.

4A.35.7 - Judging the intersection: - The intersection of the two climbing/diving segments should be at a height of 45 degrees line elevation angle.

4A.35.8 - Judging the manoeuvre's symmetry: - The figure should be flown symmetrically in relation to its "vertical" centre axis.

4A.35. 9 - Judging the fourth turn and bottom level flight segment: - The model should recover to normal upright level flight at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. The length of this segment should be slightly more than 1/8th of a lap.

4A.35.10 - Stop judging: - With the model in normal level upright flight, at exactly the same point as the model started its first turn at the start of the complete manoeuvre.

4A.35.11 - Critical points are: - Corner angles are significantly different from 60 degrees. Turn radii are not equal and/or exceed 2.1 metres. Climb and/or dive segments are not "straight line" flight path/s. When passing the overhead point, the line elevation angle does not reach (or it exceeds) 90 degrees within 60 cm. The top and bottom segments are twisted in relation to each other. The height of the bottom segment is not at 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. The bottom segment is not flown parallel to the ground throughout. The intersection point is not at a height of 45 degrees line elevation angle. Climbing and/or diving segment flight path angles are not the same and/or produce an asymmetric manoeuvre.

4A.36   Two Overhead Figure Eights (Rule 4.2.16.14)

4A.36.1 - Entry: - From normal upright level flight the model should climb to the overhead point.

4A.36.2 - Start judging: - As the model passes through the overhead point for the first time.

4A.36.3 - Locating the overhead/intersection point: - The overhead point and the intersection point should be in exactly the same position - that is: at the point where the top of the flying hemisphere meets an imaginary line projected upwards at right angles from the centre of the ground circle.

4A.36.4 - Judging the first segment (complete inside loop): - From the overhead position the model should fly a complete round inside loop, returning to the overhead/intersection point. The bottom of this loop should be at a height of 45 degrees line elevation angle plus/minus 30 cm. "Round" means with no visible deviation from a circular flight path. This loop should be flown symmetrically to an imaginary line on the face of the flying hemisphere drawn upwards at 90 degrees to the axis of the model's climb to the intersection point.

4A.36.5 - Judging passage through the intersection point and transition into the second (outside) loop segment: - The intersection point should be maintained throughout the entire figure eight. At the time of passing through the intersection/overhead point the model should smoothly transition into the second (outside) loop without visibly following either a "straight line" and/or a curved flight path. As it flies overhead the centre of the ground circle the model should be momentarily in a "knife edge" position with a line elevation angle of 90 degrees.

4A.36.6 - Judging the second segment (complete outside loop): - From the overhead position the model should transition smoothly into the second round (outside) loop, returning to the overhead/intersection point. The bottom of this loop should be at a height of 45 degrees line elevation angle plus/minus 30 cm. "Round" means no visible deviation from a circular flight path. This loop should also be flown symmetrically to an imaginary line on the face of the flying hemisphere drawn upwards at 90 degrees to the axis of the model's climb to the intersection point (4A.21.4).

4A.36.7 - Judging the second figure eight: - The model should fly exactly as set out in the individual segments above. The second eight should be flown in exactly the same position (meaning that the second eight should be superimposed on top of the first eight) and should be of exactly the same size as the first eight.

4A.36.8 - Stop judging at: - The end of the second (outside) loop as the model passes through the intersection point.

4A.36.9 - Exit procedure: - Should be flown as recommended by this rule but should not be judged or marked.

4A.36.10 - Critical points are: - Model is not vertically overhead (90 degrees line angle) at the time of entry into the manoeuvre. Loops are too big with bottoms reaching down below 45 degrees line elevation angle. Manoeuvre shows left/right 45 degrees line elevation angle asymmetry. Manoeuvre shows front/rear asymmetry. Manoeuvre orientation is "twisted" in relation the "vertical" entry centre line axis. Loop/s are not same size. Loops are not round. Model is not 90 degrees overhead when passing through the intersection point. Model curves left/right when passing through the intersection point. The intersection point varies from its initial position as defined by the entry point. The second eight is not superimposed exactly on top of the first.

4A.37   One Four-leaf Clover (Rule 4.12.16.15)

4A.37.1 Entry: - "... level flight at approximately 38 degrees elevation ..." means that the model should be in upright level flight at a height of 38 degrees line elevation height before starting the first (inside) loop.

4A.37.2 - Start judging: - With the model in upright level flight at a height of 38 degrees line elevation angle, just before the point of entry into the first (inside) loop.

4A.37.3 Judging the complete first (inside) full loop figure: - "Full inside loop" means a full 360 degrees circle which is positioned tangentially to an imaginary "vertical" line drawn upwards at right angles from the ground. The lateral position of this line is determined when the model reaches a "vertical" attitude for the first time and this imaginary line then becomes the lateral reference for the whole manoeuvre. The top of the first loop should be tangential to the wingover path located at 90 degrees to the centre line axis of the whole manoeuvre. The model should recover into upright level flight at a height of 38 degrees line elevation angle plus/minus 30 cm. "Round" means with no visible deviations from a circular flight path.

4A.37.4 - Judging upright level flight at 38 degrees line elevation angle: - At 38 degrees line elevation angle the model should follow a "straight line" flight path parallel to the ground in upright level flight. The length of this segment should be equal to the diameter of the first (inside) loop.

4A.37.5 - Judging the second (outside) loop segment: - "..., three fourths of an outside loop" means an arc measuring 270 degrees. The 270 degrees of this loop should be flown as a true circular arc without visible deviations from a circular flight path. The bottom of this loop should be at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm and this loop should end with the model entering "vertical" climb whose flight path is the same as the great circle line resulting from flying the first loop.

4A.37.6 - Judging the first "vertical" climb segment: - The model should climb vertically (at right angles to ground) and the length of this segment should be equal to the diameter of the first inside loop.

4A.37.7 - Judging the third (outside) loop segment: - " ..., three fourths of an outside loop" means an arc measuring 270 degrees. The 270 degrees of this loop should be flown as a true circular arc without visible deviations from a circular flight path. The bottom of this loop should be at a height of 38 degrees line elevation. The loop should end with the model recovering to inverted level flight at a height of 38 degrees line elevation angle plus/minus 30 cm.

4A.37.8 - Judging inverted level flight at 38 degrees line elevation angle: - At 38 degrees line elevation angle the model should follow a "straight line" flight path parallel to the ground in inverted level flight. The length of this segment should be equal to the diameter of the first (inside) loop.

4A.37.9 - Judging the fourth (inside) loop segment: - " ..., three fourths of an inside loop" means an arc measuring 270 degrees. The 270 degrees of this loop should be flown as a true circular arc without visible deviations from a circular flight path. The bottom of this loop should be at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm and this loop should end with the model entering "vertical" climb whose flight path is the same as the great circle line resulting from flying the first loop.

4A.37.10 - Judging the second "vertical" climb segment: - The model should climb vertically (at right angles to ground) and the length of this segment should be such that the model flies through the complete clover leaf figure.

4A.37.11 - Stop judging at: - The end of the last "vertical" climb as the model passes through a point exactly at right angles to the centre of the ground circle.

4A.37.12- Exit procedure: - Should be flown as recommended by this rule but should not be judged or marked.

4A.37.13 - Critical points are: - Model is not flying level at a height of 38 degrees line elevation angle plus/minus 30 cm at the time of entering the figure. The top of the first inside loop does not meet tangentially, or overshoots the wingover path. The model recovers at a height other than 38 degrees of line angle elevation. The model climbs or descends during any level flight segments. The 38 degrees angle of line elevation level flight segments are too short or too long. The bottom of the second (outside) loop is not at a height of 1.5 metres plus/minus 30 cm. The first "vertical" climb is not at right angles to the ground. The first "vertical" climb is not tangential to the imaginary "vertical" line defined by the first loop. The top of the third (outside) loop does not meet tangentially, or overshoots the wingover path. The model recovers into inverted level flight at height other than 38 degrees of line angle elevation. The bottom of the fourth (inside) loop is not at a the same height as the bottom of the second (outside) loop. The "horizontal" and "vertical" flight segments are not superimposed one on top of the other. Loops are not of the same size. Loops are not round. The figure is not symmetrical in both axes. The final "vertical" climb is not at right angles to the ground.

4A.38   Landing (Rule 4.2.16.16)

4A.38.1 - Entry: - From normal level flight at any height between 1.2 metres and 1.8 metres.

4A.38.2 - Start judging when: - The model leaves the descent entry height at the beginning of its engine-out landing approach (glide).

4A.38.3 - Judging the descent segment: - The model should travel for one full gliding (engine out) lap, measured from the start of the descent until the point of touchdown. " ... descends smoothly" means that during the whole of this one gliding lap the rate of descent should remain constant.

4A.38.4 - Judging the touchdown segment: - " ... with no bounce or unusual roughness" means that the model gently touches down once only and then remains with all its main wheel/s in contact with the ground throughout the entire ground rollout.

4A.38.5 - Judging the ground rollout segment: - The model should come to a stop within one lap of the touchdown point.

4A.38.5 - Additional factors for judges consideration: - "Unusual circumstances outside the pilot's control" are either ground surface conditions or obstacles which suddenly appear to be apparently in the approach and landing path. The appearance of such obstacles could lead to the competitor making sudden, unplanned, and/or unspecified manoeuvres for safety reasons and should therefore not be penalised by the judges. Similarly, a rough ground surface could cause a model to bounce on landing without the competitor being able to control the bounce so again rough ground at a contest site should not be penalised by the judges. But with the exception of safety hazards such as an impending thunderstorm, weather conditions generally, and wind conditions especially, should not to be considered as "unusual circumstances outside the pilot's control". Wind and weather should not therefore be considered by judges when awarding marks for the Landing, except during the last phase when, as stated at 4A.11 as an example, a sudden gust of wind coming from behind the model could cause it to flip over or tip onto its nose during the ground rollout, but with the competitor powerless to prevent the resulting "crash landing".

4A 38.6 - Stop judging when: - The model ceases the ground roll which is clearly in a forwards direction and in line with its normal flight path.

4A.38.7 - Stop timing when: - The model has come to a complete stop at the end of its ground rollout.

4A.38.8 - Awarding marks for "irregular" landings: - The Mark 0 (zero) points should be awarded for the complete landing manoeuvre if the model crashes; if it lands on its belly; or if it lands upside-down. The 0 (zero) points Mark should also be awarded if the model flips over, but this example is subject to the notes at 4A.38.5 above. The Mark 0 (zero) should also be awarded for the complete Landing manoeuvre if the official timekeeper confirms that the model has come to a stop after the total time allowed has elapsed (Rule 4.2.11).

4A.38.9 - Critical points are: - The model does not fly level at the beginning of the final descent. The gliding (engine out) descent to touchdown is longer or shorter than one lap. The rate of descent in the gliding approach is not steady. The model touches down on its tail or nose wheel/s before the mainwheel/s touch. The touchdown is not gentle, and/or there are multiple mainwheel touchdowns. The ground rollout is longer than one lap.

4A.38.10 - Additional remark: - It is recommended that one member of the Judges' Panel makes a note of the total elapsed time on the score sheet of each competitor.